Sunday, May 24, 2020

There Are Four Primary Discipline Topics Mentioned Above

There are four primary discipline topics mentioned above addressed in the review of the literature for this research, which are the analysis of the primary conceptual framework for this investigation. The social model for Cultural Competence and Critical Race Theory (CRT), are the highlights of the dimensions that will influence the research through this exploratory participatory approach. This will be a case study utilizing a mixed method approach through social constructivist participatory analysis. The case study will have an outcome basis that may produce advocacy, more effective professional development, and more culturally inclusive learning environments. Let’s view each of these outcomes individually. The research†¦show more content†¦Therefore, professional development becomes critical for a more inclusive learning environment to include more than just pedagogy. It must include culturally aware and competent trainings. Finally, this might cumulatively lead to a more culturally inclusive learning environment. A more culturally inclusive learning environment could be self-sustaining to producing more globally competitive high school students. Teachers and administrators who have more cultural mindfulness and inclusion could be able to cultivate more productive students which would be inclusive of African American high school students. According to Michael Cole, author of â€Å"Cross-Cultural and Historical Perspectives on the Developmental Consequences of Education which speaks about the primary meaning for education being to nourish a child (Cole, 2005). Cole also characterizes education as â€Å". . .a systemic instruction, schooling or training given to the young in preparation for the work of life† (Cole, 2005). Therefore, it is imperative for this learning environment of preparation for life to be culturally inclusive to be successful for an equitable and more productively effectiveShow MoreRelatedRelationship Between Learning Styles And Academic / Workplace Environment Essay1242 Words   |  5 Pagesdeveloped by Neil Fleming to assess students’ learning styles based on senses and perceptions (Introduction to VARK, 2014). It was extended from an earlier theory called â€Å"neuro-linguistic theory† by Richard Bandler and John Grinder in the 1970s. There are four categories of different learning preferences: 1. Visual: People who learn better with information that is presented in graphs, charts and diagrams. 2. Aural/Auditory: People who learn better from lectures, group discussion, QA sessions where informationRead MoreCognitive Science : The Scientific Study Of The Mind1193 Words   |  5 Pagesthe mind. Cognitive Science uses the scientific method as it primary methodology. One of the main features of cognitive science is the multifaceted method, and it uses linguistics, robotics, neuroscience, cognitive, the evolutionary approach, psychology, the emotion approach, the social approach, philosophy, and artificial intelligence (Friedenberg and Silverman, 2012). Cognitive Science uses all these different methods mentioned above, and this is why cognitive science is different. It takes formRead MoreMultiple Popular Parenting Styles Found1451 Words   |  6 Pagesmultiple popular parenting styles found and studied in psychology. There are four common parenting styles found in most homes which include, Permissive, Authoritarian, Neglecting, and Authoritative. I will be defining only two o f these styles, and giving examples of actions found in each, discussing the outcomes as well as, identifying which parenting style is most recommended for parenting. And how we as Christians view this topic as well.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  After we are conceived, we begin learning from theRead MoreGlycemic Control Of End Stage Renal Disease1277 Words   |  6 Pagescomplicated in kidney failure patients due to complex challenges affecting glucose. The purpose of this paper is to identify how the phenomenon of interest impact relevant practice area, discuss two philosophical viewpoints influencing the chosen topic and incorporate patterns of knowing to the advanced practice role. Phenomenon of Interest The writer will examine the prevalence of diabetes among the patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), potential benefits, and harm during management ofRead MoreEducation : Education Of Preservice Teachers And 2 ) Emphasis On High Stakes Testing Essay924 Words   |  4 Pagesattention. On March 26, 2006 the New York Times wrote an article titled, â€Å"Schools Cut Back Subjects to Push Reading and Math.† The article focused on all content areas that had lost time during the school day due to inflating the time devoted to the above mentioned subjects. Sam Dillion (2006) conducted a teacher survey across the state of California to find out specifically how much time was lost to Mathematics and ELA in any given day. Dillion found that one third of all districts surveyed reported theyRead MoreKey Goals For Effective Time Management Essay1245 Words   |  5 Pages 2. How do you use the above technological systems to manage your work priorities and personal commitments? Ten point plan for effective time management. List the my goals for each day first thing in the morning or the afternoon the previous day. List the activities I will need to complete to achieve each of these goals. Classify the list of activities into primary, secondary activities, those that can be delegated and those that can be done later. Focus on the primary (most important activities)Read More Accounting and Finance Essay1542 Words   |  7 Pagesothers. Financial analyst then take the data the accountants have compiled in the form of reports, and make educated guesses at what their company should do next. David ballast (1996) stated, The fact remains that accounting and finance are the primary tools for reducing business problems and opportunities to a common denominator, setting goals, measuring results, and making decisions. (p. 1) Accounting Finance Distinguishing between Accounting Finance Both accounting and finance deal withRead MoreThe And Social Activities : Daniel, A Second Year Community College Student1662 Words   |  7 Pagesagency, I would estimate his age would be mid to late 20’s. Daniel is currently enrolled as a full time student as an undeclared major at East Los Angeles College (ELAC) in Monterey Park, California. Though he did not state his sexual orientation, he mentioned that his current status was single at the moment. Daniel is also highly religious and made reference to his church and being apart of a Christian Fellowship on campus. He had no visible physical disabilities though mention his learning disabilityRead MoreIssues Of Health Career Paper Essay1253 Words   |  6 Pagesearly, middle years Physical Education and Geography teacher. This career was a perfect fit for me given my four years of work at a summer day camp, as well as my eight years of hockey coaching. Working with children and helping them develop, is not only something I enjoy doing, but is my passion. I simply could not imagine my life any other way. Emotional For the purpose of this paper the primary dimension of health that I have chosen to explore is emotional health. I believe that as a teacher, remainingRead MoreComparison Between Classroom Management And The Regulation Of Learner Behavior And Its Effective Learning1666 Words   |  7 Pagesclassroom climate as well as students involvement in the process of learning (Emmer Sabornie, 2014). Classroom management has the ultimate objective of making the schoolroom environment-friendly for learning. In this way, classroom management’s primary task is to form an inclusive, caring, and supportive environment. Organization, particularly the social organization, which includes how learners communicate and intermingle with one another and teachers, is as well a key to a supportive, caring,

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Unaccompanied Asylum Seeking Children in the UK Free Essay Example, 1500 words

Every year several unaccompanied children migrant to the UK as asylum seekers, among them mostly come from Afghanistan followed by Iraq, Iran and other Asian countries. Applications from these asylum seekers result in a granted asylum, humanitarian protection or discretionary Leaves. The following chart shows the number of applications was received within four years and the number of migrants granted asylum, humanitarian protection or discretionary leave. This chart shows that the ratio of asylum seekers who have been allowed residency in the UK has dropped, but still ratio of those who have been dismissed and withdrawn remained close within past four years. Age dispute is the major reason behind rejection and dismissed of the children seek asylum in the UK. It has been noticed that the UK border Agency disputes the age of some children applicant due to their age factor. Likewise, in 2011 approximately 374 children were age disputed, it a decrease of 24% in comparison with 2010 stat istics in which 489 were age disputed. It is noteworthy here, that out of 374 children 30% were from Afghanistan and every year, nationals of Afghanistan are age-disputed, may be due to their mature looks, height, and mature body structures (Home Office 2012). We will write a custom essay sample on Unaccompanied Asylum Seeking Children in the UK or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page Also, social workers uphold an idea that apart from official procedures of age assessment these children should be judged on the observations regarding relations with others, proves of anxiety, worries, being feared or harmed.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Analysis of the Nature and Culture Division Free Essays

The advances in the understanding of nature in terms of scientific knowledge has been tremendous especially since the mid-1950’s with the discovery of the DNA structure, which precipitated more advances in molecular biology, genetics, and biochemistry.   However, in the end of the 20th century until now, our modern society has seen more and more debates about how nature has been altered and/or destroyed by our progress in technology, in particular biotechnology. Yet, one may wonder if the debate over technological progress affecting nature or more specifically, natural laws that govern our existence, does reflect a cultural bias in the general comprehension of technological progress in our society. We will write a custom essay sample on Analysis of the Nature and Culture Division or any similar topic only for you Order Now    Consequently, three questions may be asked to completely analyze the problem.   First, is there a nature/culture problem to be discussed?   Second, if there is, how has it affected our global society with respect to a cultural shift caused by particular developments in science and technology and when?   If there is a global effect, is there a tangible effect on our personal life?   This paper will deal with each of these questions. The amazing characteristics that humans possess, is to learn from previous generations, to improve upon their work, and to establish a momentum to human life and culture that has taken our civilization from cave art to quantum physics, and into the space age.   In addition, other scientific advances bring about technological progress in our direct environment and society, more so than being in space.   Even more so has biotechnology been altering the nature of our humanity, not only in terms of ‘programmed’ physical changes based on scientific discoveries, but also in terms of environmental changes. Unfortunately, people’s understanding of what science is capable of either to benefit our society or destroy it, has been undermined since the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century.   How do we know that?   Simply consider the history of our society until now with the debate over cloning and stem-cell research that have come under fire in our western part of the world.   In both cases, a further division has taken place within the world scientific community.   Some countries allow the research whereas others do not.   Consequently, what can we draw from this chiasm, is it due to a cultural difference?   If it is, then do we really understand what the meaning of culture is?   If we do, can we reconcile differences? Raymond Williams tells us that there is a great difficulty in even defining the concept of culture. (Williams, ) Is it a division of the whole into parts (the individual) like Latour claims or a whole global entity like Tarde thinks? (Latour, Social in Question)   Furthermore, Williams is not even sure himself of what nature really means.   On page 78, he does tell us that there is a general confusion or disparity of what different people mean by nature.   Is it either the nature of man (biology), the natural nature of our environment, or both?   Latour seems to agree with Williams that there is a problem of defining the context of nature and culture.   Latour uses the illustration of one simple event like using an aerosol can after which people are taken on a journey to Antarctica, to touring scientific labs across the world, and the chemistry of inert gases. (p. 2 Crisis) (Latour, ) This implies that the complexity of the division is based not only on the science of the natural environment, but also first on how people are affected by the effects of the ozone problem, and second how different people or the world as a single cultural phenomenon perceive the problem.   The conclusion is that the division exists but its very existence is very confusing to any person from any part of the world or the whole world, perhaps minus the scientists.   Rabinow’s expose supports this idea of confusion when she claims using Michel Foucault’s and Gilles Deleuze’s arguments that there has been a shift caused by this division, particularly on how we as a species comprehend ourselves and our environment.   Specifically, on p. 91, she states: â€Å"In the modern form, finitude establishes a field of life, labor, and language  within which Man appears as a distinctive being who is both the subject and object of his own understanding, but an understanding that is never complete because of its very structure.† (Rabinow, ) Toxen is convinced that this magnitude of this shift has actually been more like a revolution with respect to science and technology in our society. (Toxen, 1983) On p.1, he emphasizes that there is a total reshaping of â€Å"industries, companies, universities, and laboratories to sustain the present mode of production.†Ã‚   He adds that the cause of this shift seems to be linked to a push for biotechnological advances, especially in our time (he wrote this article in 1983). So, how do this shift and the nature/culture division affect our own existence?   Callon speaks of auto engineers in France becoming sociologists in order to manufacture the first electric car.   As a consequence, engineers define what society will be like and how it will be changed because of the introduction of such a new mode of transportation.   Their resulting conclusions motivate their work while reshaping our ideas or shall we say our cultural acceptance. (Callon, )   In the same vein, biotechnology has been hailed as the only way to remedy problems that our society faces.   For example, Lappe and Collins cite the example of how biotechnology is supposed to solve world hunger but people are starving more than ever. (Lappe-Collins, ) An illustration of this idea is cited by Pollan with Monsanto genetically engineering a bug-killer potato that may be hazardous to our health so we would not be able to eat it anyway! (Pollan, ).   In the context of ecology, Schwartz and Thompson speak of â€Å"Nature benign gives us global equilibrium.† (Schwartz, Thompson, 1990) This idea implies that science and technology cannot help the way that is propounded.   The reason is simple: there is not enough comprehension of us as individuals and as a civilization (culture) to solve the mostly self-inflicted obstacles encountered with our nature as a species as well as our environment (nature). In conclusion, there is a real doubt whether science and technology can help our society.   Since there is a fuzzy picture of how we understand the division between culture and nature, science and technology cannot claim that they understand what shapes our society for the better while they certainly do not understand how they can shape society for the worst. References Callon, ?. (Year?). Engineers as sociologists. Publication? 210- 216. Lappe, ?, Collins, ?. (Year?). World hunger: twelve myths.   Publication? 48-66. Latour, B. Joyce, P. (editor). (Year?). The social in question. New bearings on history and the Social Sciences. London: Routledge.   (year?). Crisis. Publication? 2-12. Pollan, M. (date and year?). Playing God in my garden. The New York Times. 1-12. Rabinow, P. (Year?) Artificiality and enlightenment: from sociobiology to biosociality. Publication? 91-110. Schwartz, M., Thompson, M. (1990). Divided we stand: redefining politics, technology, and social choice.   London: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Toxen, L. (1983). The life industry in gene business: who should control biotechnology? London: Association Books. Williams, R. (Year?). Title? Publication? 68-84. How to cite Analysis of the Nature and Culture Division, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Human Cortical Neural Progenitors and Attenuates †Free Samples

Question: Discuss about the Human Cortical Neural Progenitors and Attenuates. Answer: Introduction: Zika virus is a type of mosquito Borne flavivirus. Zika virus is transmitted by the aedes mosquitoes. This virus is related to Dengue yellow fever and encephalitis. This virus was first identified at Uganda in 1947 in the monkey's which causes the yellow fever. It was later identified in 1952 in the humans of United Republic of Tanzania and Uganda it has also been recorded in Asia Africa and America. Generally the zika virus causes very mild symptoms such as mild fever, rash, conjunctivitis, joint pain, muscle pain or headache (Shankar, 2016). These symptoms generally stay for 2-7 days. The incubation period of the Zika virus is not known clearly but is it is assumed to be some few days of the incubation. ZIKV is a type of virus in the family of Flaviviridae of class Flavivirus, which additionally incorporates the main pathogen human Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and the Dengue virus (DENV). The genome of flavivirus is a RNA of 11 kilo bytes long which contains a 5 top structure however does not have a polyA tail. The RNA code for a long open chain which is converted into a protein was prepared by virus and has proteases into three basic and seven non-structural proteins (Lei et al., 2016). Non-structural protein 5 (NS5) is fundamental for the flaviviral RNA genome replication (Gourinat et al., 2015). The N-terminal bit of NS5 contains a methyl-transferase (MT), trailed by a short linker that associates with the RNA-subordinate RNA polymerase (RdRp). The MT includes the 5 RNA top structure to encourage interpretation of the polyprotein and to diminish elicitation of the host inborn invulnerable reaction. The RdRp starts RNA amalgamation by an all over again component wherein a sol itary nucleotide triphosphate fills in as a preliminary for nucleotide polymerization (Petersen et al., 2015). According to Chiramel and Best (2017), recent studies have suggested a role for autophagy in Zika infection (ZIKV) replication by showing the aggregation of autophagic vesicles after the ZIKV disease in both in vitro and in vivo models. In human fetal neural immature microorganisms, ZIKV restrains Akt-mTOR motioning to actuate autophagy, increment infection replication and block neurogenesis. In any case, autophagy additionally can possibly constrain ZIKV replication, with partitioned thinks about exhibiting antiviral parts for autophagy at the maternal-placental-fetal interface, and all the more particularly, at the endoplasmic reticulum where infection replication is set up in a tainted cell. Strangely, ZIKV (and related flaviviruses) has advanced particular components to overcome autophagy at the ER, hence exhibiting vital parts for these autophagic pathways in infection replication and host reaction (Lei et al., 2016). According to Tsunoda et al. (2016), ZIKV have direct neuro-tropism and neuro-virulence but does not have neuro-invasiveness. Intrauterine ZIKV disease (viral pathology) has been connected to an expanded frequency of microencephaly, following ZIKV contamination is likely insusceptible interceded. Clinically, in ZIKV disease, antibodies against different flaviviruses, for example, DENV, have been identified; these are the antibodies that can cross-respond with ZIKV balance. In principle, such non-killing antibodies are created to the detriment of diminished generation of killing antibodies (Tsunoda et al., 2016). While the non-killing antibodies can likewise upgrade viral replication in Fc receptor (FcR)- bearing cells by means of immunizer subordinate improvement (ADE). Here, we propose three potential parts of the neutralizer interceded pathogenesis of ZIKV contamination: ZIKV-immune response complex is taken up at nerve endings and transported to neurons in the focal sensory system (CNS), from here the infection can enter the CNS without intersecting the barrier of blood and brain. Panchaud et al. (2016) stated that the current accessible proof backings the presence of a causal connection between pre-birth Zika infection disease and microcephaly and different genuine cerebrum peculiarities. Microcephaly can be caused by a few components, and its clinical course and anticipation are hard to foresee. Different pathogens with demonstrated teratogenicity have been recognized some time before the current ZIKV plague. In spite of the developing number of cases with maternal indications of contamination and additionally nearness of ZIKV in tissues of influenced babies or embryos, it is as of now hard to evaluate the extent of increment of microcephaly pervasiveness in Brazil, and also the part of different factors in the advancement of inborn neurological conditions (Tang et al., 2016). In the interim, wellbeing offices and therapeutic associations have issued wary rules prompting medicinal services specialists and hopeful couples making a trip to, coming back from, o r living in influenced regions. Undifferentiated from dengue infection (DENV) plagues, ZIKV can possibly wind up noticeably endemic in all nations swarmed by Aedes mosquitoes, while new changes could affect viral replication in people, prompting expanded harmfulness and subsequently elevated odds of viral transmission to extra credulous mosquito vectors. Studies are critically expected to answer the inquiries encompassing ZIKV and its part in inherent neurological conditions (Zhang et al., 2017). According to Musso (2014), the sporadic human diseases were accounted for in Africa and Asia. In 2007, the main expansive archived ZIKV episode was accounted for from Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia. No further transmission was distinguished in the Pacific until October 2013, when French Polynesia (FP) revealed the primary cases; an ensuing hazardous episode brought about an expected 28 000 cases looking for restorative care. Phylogenetic examinations exhibited that the FP strain was firmly identified with Cambodia 2010 and Yap State 2007 strains, authenticating past discoveries of the development of the ZIKV Asian ancestry. Amid the FP episode, most clinical cases gave gentle malady described by poor quality fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis. No extreme sickness coming about because of ZIKV contamination had been accounted for preceding the FP episode, yet past clinical portrayal depended on a set number of affirmed cases. The current fleeting and s patial relationship between the FP ZIKV episode and the exceptionally strange GBS bunch is extremely suspicious, however does not affirm ZIKV as the antigenic jolt inclining to this immune system sickness. Following the FP episode in late 2013, there were resulting flare-ups in New Caledonia, the Cook Islands, and Easter Island. As a result of the regularly gentle clinical indications, constrained ZIKV analytic limit, and covering clinical highlights of ZIKV, dengue, and chikungunya, which are likewise flowing in the Pacific, we trust that continuous and undetected ZIKV transmission in other Pacific island nations, and possibly past, is profoundly plausible. The perception that serious clinical intricacies may happen features the need to reinforce reconnaissance for this developing infection, and, in case of a ZIKV episode, set up thorough clinical observing to distinguish GBS or other bizarre clinical indications. Freire et al. (2014) had studied the molecular evolution of zika virus by investigating 37 Zika virus isolates that were collected from Senegal and six different countries. Samples collected that are utilized as a part of this examination. Monkey and human strains were acquired separately in 1979 and 1991 in Senegal amid routine observation. None of the information was specifically derived from human or creature tests but instead from cell culture supernatant. Along these lines every one of the specimens was mysterious and just reference numbers were utilized amid the investigation that began this examination. Viral contamination was affirmed following seven days of engendering by a roundabout immuno-fluorescence measure utilizing particular hyper-invulnerable mouse ascitic liquid, as portrayed already. Cultures supernatants were gathered for RNA isolation. Then the RNA was extracted by gel electrophoresis and was eluted by AVE buffer and then stored at -80C for further use. Then cDN A was synthesized and PCR was done for the amplification of the viral RNA. For the amplification cDNA is mixed with the buffer, primers, dNTPs, MgCl2 and Taq polymerase. After the amplification the phylogenetic analysis is done it was found that some of the countries from West Africa show the emergence of the Zika virus during the 20th century. In the year 2015, Musso et al., proved the sexual transmission of the Zika virus by the help of a man who had the symptoms of the Zika infection such as low fever, asthenia and arthralgia. They collected the blood and the semen samples ans tested for teh confirmation of hematospermia. They extracted RNA from 200L of blood and 500L of semen, and then were eluted by a 50L of the elution buffer. From this 5L of RNA was extracted for doing the amplification. The samples were then tested by doing RT-PCR using the primers specific of the Zika virus. The results shows that there are positive signs of Zika virus in semen but there are no virus in the blood. Thus it can be proved that the Zika can be transmitted sexually. Cauchemez et al. (2016) studied the emergence of the Zika virus in America has increased rate of microencephaly with the birth of the babies. They reflectively analysed the information from a Zika virus epidemic in French Polynesia, which was the biggest archived flare-up before that in the Americas. They utilized serological and observation information to gauge the likelihood of contamination with Zika infection for every seven day stretch of the plague and looked restorative records to recognize all instances of microencephaly from September, 2013, to July, 2015. Simple models were utilized to evaluate times of hazard in pregnancy when Zika infection may expand the danger of microencephaly and gauge the related hazard. From the study it was found that the Zika virus epidemic was started in October, 2013, and finished in April, 2014, and 66% (95% CI 62 70) of the overall public were contaminated. Of the eight microencephaly cases recognized amid the 23-month think about period, seve n (88%) happened in the 4-month time span March 1 to July 10, 2014. The planning of these cases was best clarified by a time of hazard in the main trimester of pregnancy. In this model, the standard pervasiveness of microencephaly was two cases (95% CI 0 8) per 10?000 neonates, and the danger of microencephaly connected with Zika infection disease was 95 cases (34 191) per 10?000 ladies tainted in the primary trimester. We couldn't preclude an expanded danger of microencephaly from contamination in different trimesters; however models that avoided the principal trimester were not supported by the information. Gourinat et al. (2015) described the presence of Zika virus in the urine samples. They have collected some urine samples from 6 peoples who are suffering from the Zika virus infection. To detect the ZIKV in the urine samples firstly RNA was extracted from 200 L of urine, then they use the sets of specific primers for ZIKV. A standard curve was obtained with the serial dilutions of a Zika virus stock of known concentrations. All the urine samples were also being tested for the dengue and chikungunya virus infections by using RT-PCR and it showed negative results. Then the urine samples that were taken from the patients showed a positive result for ZIKV. Some urine samples were also taken from 6 healthy persons that were also assessed and it showed the negative results. Conclusion In general, since there are no particular medicines for Zika infection disease, and in addition for other developing arbo-viruses of general wellbeing significance, the viable control of mosquito vectors with eco-accommodating instruments is of pivotal significance. Natural control programs against mosquito youthful instars depend on the arrival of savage amphibian life forms, and this system is as often as possible not reasonable in the greater part of urban conditions misused by hatchlings of some Aedes species, accordingly additionally look into is required (Benelli, 2016). Be that as it may, the utilize of organic control operators of mosquito youthful instars in nearness of ultra-low amounts of plant-integrated metal and carbon nanoparticles, may prompt the effective decrease of vector populaces, since the sub-deadly dosages of these nano-formulations are lethal towards the Culicidae, yet not to their regular adversaries. Other than the utilization of manufactured and plant-born e anti-agents to dodge Culicidae nibbles, and also the exemplary pesticide-based control programs focusing on mosquito youthful instars, facilitate viable alternatives will incorporate radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based control approaches (Fauci Morens, 2016). Likewise, the utilization of organic control specialists of mosquito eggs, hatchlings and pupae, in nearness of ultra-low amounts of bioreduced nanoparticles, which help their predation rates, appears to be encouraging. Further researches are to be done to get the correct idea of the use of chemical compound and decision elements in mosquito vectors is required. Additionally behavioral examinations dismembering the relative significance of visual (with uncommon reference to swarming historic points), vibrational, olfactory and material signals are seen during swarming and mating. This is of essential significance to permit the compelling uses of swarming control (the "lure and kill" approach), pheromone traps and sound traps. References Benelli, G. (2016). Spread of Zika virus: the key role of mosquito vector control.Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine,6(6), 468-471. Chiramel, A. I., Best, S. M. (2017). Role of Autophagy in Zika Virus Infection and Pathogenesis.Virus Research. Fauci, A. S., Morens, D. M. (2016). Zika virus in the Americasyet another arbovirus threat.New England Journal of Medicine,374(7), 601-604. Goodnough, L. T., Marques, M. B. (2017). Zika Virus and Patient Blood Management.Anesthesia Analgesia,124(1), 282-289. Gourinat, A. C., OConnor, O., Calvez, E., Goarant, C., Dupont-Rouzeyrol, M. (2015). Detection of Zika virus in urine.Emerging infectious diseases,21(1), 84. Lei, J., Hansen, G., Nitsche, C., Klein, C. D., Zhang, L., Hilgenfeld, R. (2016). Crystal structure of Zika virus NS2B-NS3 protease in complex with a boronate inhibitor. Science, 353(6298), 503-505. Panchaud, A., Stojanov, M., Ammerdorffer, A., Vouga, M., Baud, D. (2016). Emerging role of Zika virus in adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes.Clinical microbiology reviews,29(3), 659-694. Petersen, L. R., Jamieson, D. J., Powers, A. M., Honein, M. A. (2016). Zika virus.New England Journal of Medicine,374(16), 1552-1563. Shankar, P. S. (2016). Zika virus infection.RGUHS Journal of Medical Sciences,6(2), 53-54. Tang, H., Hammack, C., Ogden, S. C., Wen, Z., Qian, X., Li, Y., ... Christian, K. M. (2016). Zika virus infects human cortical neural progenitors and attenuates their growth management. Cell stem cell, 18(5), 587-590. Tsunoda, I., Omura, S., Sato, F., Kusunoki, S., Fujita, M., Park, A. M., ... Nagata, S. (2016). Neuropathogenesis of Zika Virus Infection: Potential Roles of Antibody-Mediated Pathology.Acta medica Kinki University,41(2), 37. Zhang, B., Pinsky, B. A., Ananta, J. S., Zhao, S., Arulkumar, S., Wan, H., ... Tang, M. (2017). Diagnosis of Zika virus infection on a nanotechnology platform.Nature Medicine,23(5), 548-550. Musso, D., Nilles, E. J., Cao?Lormeau, V. M. (2014). Rapid spread of emerging Zika virus in the Pacific area.Clinical Microbiology and Infection,20(10). Faye, O., Freire, C. C., Iamarino, A., Faye, O., de Oliveira, J. V. C., Diallo, M., Zanotto, P. M. (2014). Molecular evolution of Zika virus during its emergence in the 20th century.PLoS neglected tropical diseases,8(1), e2636. Cauchemez, S., Besnard, M., Bompard, P., Dub, T., Guillemette-Artur, P., Eyrolle-Guignot, D., ... Fontanet, A. (2016). Association between Zika virus and microcephaly in French Polynesia, 201315: a retrospective study.The Lancet,387(10033), 2125-2132. Musso, D., Roche, C., Robin, E., Nhan, T., Teissier, A., Cao-Lormeau, V. M. (2015). Potential sexual transmission of Zika virus.Emerging infectious diseases,21(2), 359. Gourinat, A. C., OConnor, O., Calvez, E., Goarant, C., Dupont-Rouzeyrol, M. (2015). Detection of Zika virus in urine.Emerging infectious diseases,21(1), 84.

Sunday, March 29, 2020

The History Of The Airline Alliances Tourism Essay Example

The History Of The Airline Alliances Tourism Essay During the last decennaries, several so called confederations have been formed in the air hose industry. Harmonizing to Stanford-Smith, Chiozza Edin, a strategic confederation can be explained as any signifier of long-run cooperation between two or more administrations, where the parent administrations remain separate legal entities, which is intended to basically alter the merchandise or service, or its production/delivery method, in a given concern unit ( p. 958 ) . At this minute, there are three chief air hose confederations around the Earth. First of wholly, Star Alliance, which was created in 1997 and presently dwelling of 27 member air hoses ( Star Alliance, 2012 ) . Second, OneWorld, established in 1999 and soon holding 12 members. Finally, the youngest air hose confederation is SkyTeam, formed in 2000 and consists now of 18 member air hoses ( SkyTeam, 2012 ) . This paper describes the assorted impacts of air hose confederations. In the first chapter, the impacts of air hose confederations on their members will be discussed. Second, the effects of allied air hoses on non-member air hoses will be argued. And eventually, the influences of air hose confederations on the airdromes they fly at will be explained. In each chapter, both positive and negative influences will be discussed. 1. Impacts on member air hoses Positive impacts on member air hoses We will write a custom essay sample on The History Of The Airline Alliances Tourism specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The History Of The Airline Alliances Tourism specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The History Of The Airline Alliances Tourism specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Airline confederations have several positive impacts on their member air hoses. In this paragraph, three illustrations of positive impacts will be explained. First of wholly, it is argued that confederations have a positive consequence on salvaging an air hose s costs. For case, when purchasing aircraft stuffs for care intents, member air hoses can cut down the sum costs by buying these resources together and may have majority price reductions. The same technique can besides be used for majority buying aircraft. For illustration, in 2003, four members of Star Alliance intended to bulk purchase up to 200 standardized regional aircraft ( Doganis, 2006, p. 93 ) . In fact, harmonizing to Doganis ( 2006 ) , it is estimated that joint buying can cut the monetary values paid by up to seven per cent and finally cut downing the entire bill by up to a billion dollars every twelvemonth ( p. 93 ) . Furthermore, the joint usage of other services, for case land handling or catering installations, can besides assist in cut downing air hose costs ( Bissessur A ; Alamdari, 1998, p. 335 ) . Second, it is said that air hoses can gain from increased rider traffic when being in an confederation. This addition is by and large caused by the extension of the air hose s web by utilizing a code-share understanding ( Bissessur A ; Alamdari, 1998 ) . Code sharing is good for both the selling air hose and the operating air hose. On the one manus, it is advantageous for the merchandising air hose as it is selling a ticket of the operating air hose under its ain designator codification. This means that the merchandising air hose additions entree to new markets without holding to run their ain aircraft at that place. On the other manus, the operating air hose is likely to transport more riders on board as the tickets are sold through more distribution channels than instead its ain. Table 1 Wagess and associated costs of labor as a per centum of entire operating cost ( 2002 ) Beginning: Doganis, 2006, p. 119 Finally, it is argued that an air hose confederation has a good consequence on a member air hose s labor costs. Nowadays, labor costs represent rather a considerable portion of an air hose s operating cost. As can be seen in Table 1, rewards and associated costs of labors largely account for 20 to 35 per cent of the air hose s entire operating cost Doganis ( 2006, p. 119 ) . Harmonizing to Doganis ( 2001 ) , labour costs differ greatly between air hoses in the same markets globally, unlike other costs as such as land handling, fuel and airdrome fees. Iatrou ( 2004 ) gives two examples how an air hose confederation could assist in cut downing labor costs. First, the figure of gross revenues and land forces could be reduced by sharing offices at bases of another member air hose, alternatively of keeping its ain offices across the Earth. Second, it is argued that confederations could ease member air hoses to profit from the low-wage construction of its spouses in other states, without salvaging on employee quality. This could for illustration apply to the enlisting of cabin and cockpit crew ( p. 99 ) . Negative impacts on member air hoses Although confederations have several advantages for their member air hoses, there are besides some downsides for the confederation participants. This paragraph discusses three chief negative effects on spouse air hoses. First, it is argued that take parting in an confederation could impact an air hose s trade name image ( Kleymann A ; Seristo , 2004 ) . This job may be triggered by the assortment of images within the confederation. The writers suggest that it could be possible that an image of an confederation is created that is unlike the image of any of the attached air hoses. However, a grant between the images of the most dominant member air hoses is considered to be more likely. For smaller air hoses, it could be considered difficult to accommodate to the created image of the confederation ( p. 120 ) . Second, conflicting understandings could besides be considered as a negative consequence. Iatrou ( 2004 ) explains that it is likely that all confederation members use the same provider. Before an air hose joins an confederation, it normally has a long-standing relationship with different providers, such as catering, Central Reservation Systems ( CRS ) and so on. As a effect, the air hose may happen it hard to revoke these contracts because of possible punishments that may follow. What is more, when an air hose agrees on a new provider, it will really probably have to put clip and money in acquiring familiarised with the new providers and their systems ( p. 114 ) . Finally, it can be argued that increased costs for an air hose could besides be a possible negative impact. Following to the regular subscription fee that a member air hose is ought to pay, Iatrou ( 2004 ) references another type of cost for the air hose, which are the alleged sunk-costs . These touchable disbursals cover all accommodations that have to be made in order to run into the confederation s demands, for case the aircraft inside. These investings by the member are required to guarantee effectual confederation operations and to hold consistent committedness of the member air hoses to the confederation. It goes without stating that, particularly for comparatively little air hoses, these costs can be seen as a considerable investing. One can reason that, as a consequence, this investing might do them more dependent on the confederation ( p. 115-116 ) . 2. Impacts on non-member air hoses 2.1. Positive impacts on non-member air hoses It can be considered that confederations have positive impacts on non-member air hoses. That is to state, how air hoses can profit from non take parting in an confederation. It can be argued that some air hoses, presently non take parting in an confederations, do non desire to fall in an confederation, because of their alone concern theoretical account. Iatrou ( 2004 ) illustrates the grounds for this dissociation on the footing of interviews with two air hoses, that have non joined a planetary confederation so far and make non mean to fall in such an confederation. First of wholly, it is argued that air hoses that are non likely to fall in an confederation, are of the sentiment that they have alone trade name , offering alone merchandises . One can therefore state that these air hoses have created such a trade name consciousness that it is non for the interest of their image that they want to fall in an confederation. Second, it is said that it would non be even more good for an air hose to fall in an confederation in footings of web enlargement. For illustration, Virgin Atlantic has specified in the interview that they are non dependent on any feeders, as of their ain web traffic as less than 10 per cent is linking traffic. Third, as discussed in the old chapter, confederation entry fees and other costs form a barrier against fall ining an confederation. Some illustrations of these costs are the constitution of the new IT substructure and distribution channels, and so on. Finally, the writer argues that bureaucratic burden is another indis pensable ground why an air hose does non desire to fall in an confederation. It can be said that there are some rather important charges of the direction of take parting in confederation meetings, which consummate at batch of clip on a annual footing ( p. 160 ) . 2.2. Negative impacts on non-member air hoses It can be said that air hose confederations besides have negative influences on air hoses outside their partnership. In this paragraph, two chief negative impacts on this group of air hoses will be discussed. First, Bjork ( 2002 ) explains the effects of competition between allied air hoses and non-member air hoses. The writer argues that air hoses that dominate a hub are likely to have a greater figure of slot allowances at their chief hubs, which will likely take to some anti-competitive concerns. The writer continues by giving the illustration of a step initiated by the US Department of Transport ( DOT ) to cut down this anti-competitive state of affairs. First of wholly, the US DOT has recognised that where service in the market is constrained by slot handiness, a hub bearer with entree to a big pool of slots has even greater handiness to react in entry in an anti-competitive manner because the entrant will be unable to add capacity on its ain ( p. 28 ) . As a effect, in order to excite competition in some markets, the US DOT has granted a restricted figure of slot freedoms to new air hoses that wish to vie in that peculiar market. Unfortunately, the attack of the US DOT did non ho ld the consequence that was ab initio wished, and therefore did non increase the competition in these markets. The ground given for this was that, normally, new participants do non happen it economically justified to come in into a market which is dominated by a single-hub air hose in order to take part ( Young, 1999 ) . Bjork ( 2002 ) argues that this logical thinking can be relied on the market portions of hub air hoses. It can be seen in figure 1 that KLM Royal Dutch Airlines ( KL ) is by far the largest operator at Schiphol Airport with a market portion of about 50 per cent. A hub bearer as KLM has created over the old ages a changeless addition portion of available slots at their hub airdromes, which are called fortress hubs ( p. 29 ) . Figure 1 Airline market portion at Amsterdam Schiphol ( 2011 ) based on air conveyance motions Abbreviations AF Air France AZ Alitalia BA British Airways DL Delta Airlines HV Transavia.com KL KLM LH Lufthansa OR ArkeFly SK SAS Scandinavian U2 easyJet Beginning: compiled by the writer ; informations beginning: Schiphol, 2011, p. 25 However, congested hubs are non the lone cause for concern with anti-competition. The decrease in competition can besides be reduced when rivals join together in a amalgamation or confederation, particularly when they were once active on the same path ( Bjork, 2002 ) . Furthermore, the writer describes that particularly heavy long-haul hub-to-hub paths are threatened, as some of these hubs are inviolable fortresses . Doganis ( 2006 ) mentions the illustration of the amalgamation of Northwest Airlines and Republic Airlines which was consummated in 1986. Both Northwest which focussed largely on medium/long-haul and Republic which focussed more on short-haul operations used the airdrome of Minneapolis St. Paul ( MSP ) as their chief hub and competed on many paths. The US Department for Transport, responsible for air hose amalgamations at that clip, approved the amalgamation for two grounds. First, because the webs of both air hoses were likely to complement each other. Second, bec ause the synergism would be an chance for efficiency additions. However, the US Department of Justice argued that the amalgamation was anti-competitive and hence should non be permitted. As a effect of the sanctioned amalgamation, non merely competition was abolished from many duopolistic paths, but the merged Northwest became wholly supreme at MSP ( p. 95-96 ) . As can be seen in figure 2, Northwest ( NW ) , together with its code-share spouses, were responsible for 67.7 per cent of the flights, and 70.8 per cent of all riders at MSP in 2009. Furthermore, Bjork ( 2002 ) references that the strength of the big air hose at a hub airdrome is non the lone factor that threatens new entrants. The writer continues by saying that the US Department of Transport ( DOT ) has besides acknowledged that an incumbent air hose can beef up its solid place at a hub airdrome by a figure of steps and accordingly can censor all effectual competition. For illustration, it can be said that most big air hoses have acquired commuter spouses or have certain understandings with them. This ensures traffic flows between little spokes and the chief hub, which feed the international or intercontinental flights of the incumbent air hose. When this big air hose culls to interline at of import hub airdromes with new entrants, it may restrict the ability of the regional bearers to obtain provender traffic. As a consequence, limited competition is realised in both thin feeder markets and long-haul hub-to-hub markets ( p. 30 ) . Figure 2 Airline operations of major air hoses at Minneapolis-St. Paul Airport ( MSP ) in 2009 Abbreviations AA American Airlines DL Delta Airlines FL Air Tran SY SunCountry UA United Airlines US US Airways WN Southwest Airlines Beginning: compiled by the writer ; informations beginning: MSP Airport, 2009 3. Impacts on airdromes 3.1. Positive impacts on airdromes It can be stated that the presence of air hose confederations has assorted positive impacts on airdromes. First of wholly, as all members in an confederation have an extended finish web, because of the connecting options of their confederation spouses, it can be argued that the figure of transportation riders at airdromes additions. Figure 3 shows that the figure of transportation riders at Amsterdam Schiphol Airport in the Netherlands has risen steadily from 18 million in 2004 up to 20.3 million in 2008 ( Schiphol, 2011 ) . Hence, it can be believed that the presence of the SkyTeam confederation, which uses Amsterdam Schiphol as a hub, has certainly contributed to the growing of transportation riders. Second, as a effect, this increasing figure of transportation riders has besides a positive consequence on the purchase of duty-free merchandises in the airdrome stores. In order to increase the gross revenues at airdrome stores, an airdrome can make up ones mind on opening forte shops which may involvement international transportation riders. To utilize the illustration of Amsterdam Schiphol, the airdrome has opened more luxury duty-free shops in answer to the increasing demand by particularly Russian and Asiatic transportation riders. For illustration, this includes a Finest Spirits A ; Cigars shop and a shop that focuses on the sale of assorted cocoa merchandises ( Schiphol, 2011, p. 58 ) . Figure 3 The figure of transportation riders at Amsterdam Schiphol Airport ( 2004-2011 ) Beginning: compiled by the writer informations beginning: Schiphol, 2012 3.2. Negative impacts on airdromes In contrast with the assorted positive effects of air hose confederations on airdromes, there are besides some downsides. In this paragraph, two disadvantages of confederations on airdromes will be discussed. First, as air hose confederations bring an addition in traffic, congestion at an airdrome can be considered as a negative consequence, peculiarly at peak times. Particularly when there is an uneffective usage of the airdrome substructure, it can be difficult to suit the flights in a short timeframe ( Dennis, 2001 ) . At many of these types of airdromes it has been considered ineluctable to divide the usage of the track into time-defined sections normally known as slots ( Bjork, 2002, p. 28 ) . Harmonizing to IATA ( 2011 ) , slots can be defined as a permission given by a coordinator for a planned operation to utilize the full scope of airdrome substructure necessary to get or go at an [ aˆÂ ¦ ] airdrome on a specific day of the month and clip ( p. 11 ) . Besides, most flights at hubs are scheduled in so called waves . In each wave , a big figure of geting flights in a short timeframe is followed by more or less the same figure of goings, after leting some clip for rea llocation of riders and baggage. For illustration, figure 4 shows the moving ridge system of Germany s flag bearer Lufthansa at Munich Airport. This figure shows that a regular weekday consists of four moving ridges. Figure 4 Wave-system analysis of Lufthansa at Munich Airport Beginning: Burghouwt, 2007, p. 69 As airdromes do non hold an unrestricted extremum capacity during a wave , air hoses should accommodate their agendas consequently. Dennis ( 2001 ) discusses two chief options for rescheduling. Flights can either be added to the boundary lines of the present moving ridges, or new moving ridges can be developed to suit these extra flights. With respect to the figure of connexions, the first option is more likely to be chosen. However, while widening the current moving ridge, the connexion clip will besides increase. Figure 5 implies that a moving ridge with about 50 aircraft is likely to be the best option. Passing this figure could affect excess waiting clip for riders, which could ensue in an increased extremum burden on the terminal edifice ( p. 2 ) . Second, it is argued that the investing that airports will hold to do for confederations in order to suit seamless transportation connectivity, can besides hold a negative consequence on airdromes. In order to cut down the Minimum Connecting Time ( MCT ) for riders, airdromes have made some accommodations to their substructure. An illustration is Brussels Airport in Belgium, which upgraded their imposts and in-migration installations to make a better flow of riders reassigning from a Schengen beginning to a non-Schengen finish. Nevertheless, some airdromes are fundamentally non designed to suit traffic from air hose confederations. This is, for case, the instance when an airdrome consists of multiple terminuss that are non located near each other. This might take a rider a long clip to reassign when confederation spouses are spread over multiple terminuss, impacting the MCT as good ( Dennis, 2001 ) . Figure 5 Increase in connexions with moving ridge size ( based on 60 arrivals/departures per hr and 30 minute lower limit connecting clip ) Beginning: Dennis, 2001, p. 2 Decision Lorem ipsum dolour sit amet, ad Mali moderatius neglegentur eum. His suas eripuit scribentur ad, NEC in docendi ocurreret persequeris. Deseruisse Theophrastus copper vix, ex mel utamur repudiandae. Possit tacimates ne est, ut has platonem oportere. To sum up it can be said that what these unaligned air hoses resent in confederations is their sole character, the bureaucratic burden and the multi-lateral rank that distracts an air hose. Non-alignment agencies independent determinations that are taken quicker, version to altering demands and undivided focal point on the nucleus concern of the air hose. These air hoses have been helped in their determination non to fall in an confederation by the fact that the majority of inter-carrier understandings continue to be on the footing of bilateral trades and that confederation groupings are non truly sole. Alliance bearers retain a host of bilaterals with non-members and there are several cases of codification sharing between members of rival planetary confederations. Once the form of planetary confederations becomes much clearer and more stable and alliances become more and more sole in nature, it will go really hard for unaligned air hoses to collaborate with air hoses in confederatio n groupings. Furthermore, if existing confederations proceed to deeper integrating and accomplish ultimate cost decrease, this will tip the graduated table in favor of confederations, as it will increase their profitableness and competitory advantage. Such developments will set excess force per unit area on the unaligned air hoses to re-evaluate their attack towards confederations.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Northern Rock Bank

Northern Rock Bank Introduction Northern Rock is a bank operating under the umbrella of Virgin Money in the United Kingdom. It was established in 1965 and 30 years down the line, it had acquired approximately 53 building societies in England.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Northern Rock Bank specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Over the years this bank was being considered as one of the top lenders in the UK, especially in relation to mortgages. Prior to 2007, Northern rock had an investment plan which was to result in securitization. This according to Milne Wood involved â€Å"borrowing heavily in the UK and international money markets, extending mortgages to customers based on this funding and then re-selling these mortgages on international capital markets† (518). This, however, failed in 2007, when, owing to the global financial crisis, the demand for credit facilities from investors went down and Northern Rock was unable to pay back the credit it had obtained from the money markets. Lender of last resort This is a facility that allows banks to survive a financial crisis. It is mostly offered by the central bank. When Northern Rock was faced with the liquidity crisis in 2007, it looked up to the Bank of England for emergency support but this was not possible since it could not provide the facility. Many scholars, including Vesala (2006), Herring (2007), and Shin (2009) blame the situation in Northern Rock to the inability of the Bank of England to act promptly indicating that had it performed its role as a lender of last resort, the bank run would have been avoided. In fact, Shin indicates that â€Å"in its role as a lender of last resort, the Bank of England had been able to exert significant moral suasion over the banking sector, and the discount office was able to obtain information from banks on a purely informal basis† (2009,p.103).Advertising Looking for case study on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Other scholars believe that the Bank of England failed to act because Northern Bank had not provided it with sufficient information concerning its discount facilities. They also argue that the management of Northern Rock failed to heed to liquidity warnings and this acted as a hindrance when they needed assistance. These claims are, however, refuted by Freixas et al (2009). He asserts that a central bank is expected to perform its role irrespective of the actions of the other party (151). He states that â€Å"even when the central bank does not have the formal statutory responsibility for banking supervision, it can still obtain the information it needs to act as lender of last resort† (2009,p.152). Kane (2008) believes that the Northern rock issues exposed the faults in the government with regard to dealing with financial crisis. These faults include â€Å"the workings of e mergency liquidity assistance, some others the workings of deposit insurance and some others the insolvency and pre-insolvency arrangements† (2008, p.50). All these boil down to the functions of the Central bank as a lender of last resort. Financial crises in banks are one of the greatest challenges in most economies, since failure of banks spells out a failure in the entire economy. Liquidity lending is therefore considered to be an important factor since it is usually the solution to most banks going through a crisis. Some of the instruments available to governments dealing with financial crises include â€Å"the central bank’s role as a lender of last resort, deposit insurance schemes, government’s policies to shield depositors’ insolvency laws, among other preventive measures† (FSA internal Audit division, 2008, p. 39). Despite all the other actions, the lender of last resort factor is the most effective since it provides the banks with the cred it facilities to continue with their operations promptly. Prior to the crisis, Northern Rock was a successful institution though not influential to the point of thinking its failure would affect the economy in any way. This issue however attracted the attention of many financial analysts since it brought out the weaknesses of the Bank of England in dealing with crises faced by the banks.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Northern Rock Bank specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Due to this exposure, the government made a commitment to offer the required liquidity, and this worked since the bank run in Northern Rock stopped instantly. House of Commons (2008) therefore made a conclusion from this issue that the run would have been avoided all together, if all parties had been playing their roles effectively. This can, however, not be blamed on the Bank of England since it had not dealt with such an issue in the recent pa st. The activities in relation to acting as a lender of last resort were rarely carried out, hence the policies were outdated. This explains why the situation caught all relevant bodies including Northern Rock itself by surprise (House of Commons, 2008, p. 23). Northern rock and the FSA In the view of financial analysts, the crisis that hit Northern Rock in 2007 was predictable and some even argue that the crisis was not related to the activities of Northern bank per se. It is believed that the Financial Services Authority (FSA) played a major role in this. An article by Bank of England (2007) made an observation that FSA had given Northern Rock warnings concerning â€Å"the evolving trends in the market which included; sharp asset growth, systemic underpricing of risk, and the risk shifting characteristics of new financial instruments which would not be as water tight as they appeared to be† (2007,p. 2). FSA also indicated that the strategies being used by Northern Rock were unstable since they were depending on large scale market funding; hence, placing the institution in a risky liquidity position. Besides this, FSA had also made an observation in the government’s regulatory system which it claims had a number of loopholes that exposed the financial institutions to issues similar to those of Northern Rock. These, according to FSA (2008) included â€Å"a fundamental flaw in the depository protection scheme, lack of established special bankruptcy regime for banks, lack of predictable resolution regime for handling troubled banks and the existence of an institutional structure of financial supervision that separated responsibility for systemic stability and lender of last resort from prudential supervision of individual banks† (FSA, 2008, p. 33).Advertising Looking for case study on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Owing to the financial stability that had been witnessed in the region over the years, these observations seemed not to be having any ground, until the real risk was witnessed in Northern Rock, and this acted as a wakeup call to FSA. At the beginning of 2007, FSA considered Northern Rock as one of the best performing financial institutions in the UK. What it failed to realize at that time were the mortgage risks that it was exposed to owing to the fact that the institution dealt mostly with international investors. This risk was brought about by the financial crisis that was being witnessed all over the world during that period. Observations made later on indicated that â€Å"by mid-September, it had become apparent to Northern Rock that longer term funding markets were closed to it. Rollovers were largely continuing but at shorter and shorter maturities and Northern Rock lacked the option to draw on sufficient prearranged contingency liquidity lines of credit and did not benefit f rom a third party injection of capital† (FSA, 2008,p. 34). Due to this, FSA made an endorsement indicating that the Bank of England was deemed to provide liquidity facilities to all the banks that needed this kind of support in the UK, including Northern Rock. This crisis mainly focused on three institutions, the Bank of England, the treasury and FSA, owing to their joint responsibility of ensuring stability in the financial sector. FSA is blamed for permitting Northern Rock to raise its dividends irrespective of the already messed up financial position. An article by FSA Internal Audit Division (2008) supports these allegations by indicating that, â€Å"in in their own internal audits of the experience and compilation of the lessons learned from the Northern Rock failure contained a broad list of problems within FSA which included lack of rigor in the analyses conducted and failure to devote insufficient resources to monitoring what are regarded as high impact situationsâ₠¬  (Audit Division, 2008, p. 42). This report indicates that the major issues that led to this failure included organizational shortfalls, lack of sufficient skills in the supervisors, and poor methods of supervision, especially in large institutions operating at international levels. From the discussion, it is clear that FSA was in a position to save Northern Rock from the downfall, had it acted on the early signs. In fact, financial researchers such as Milne Wood (2008), Shin (2009) and Herring (2007) indicated that FSA devoted little time to the process of checking the level of stress tolerance in Northern Rock, hence ignoring many factors that eventually worked against the institution. Shin (2009) specifically points out that â€Å"insufficient attention was given to the banks challenging governance programs and risk mitigation processes† (2009, p.110). Herring (2007) concurrently indicates that â€Å"FSA not only ignored numerous early warning signs of troubles with N orthern Rock, but also ignored a breach of required minimum capital standards early in 2007† (p.10). Besides these, it was also noted that the bank failed to inform its stakeholders of this failure, and FSA was aware of this, but failed to take action. From this, a conclusion can be drawn that despite the fact that Northern Rock was responsible for its own peril, FSA also played a major role of not intervening where it would have been and also assuming the warning signs that were so loud and clear. Failure of prudential supervision In any financial setup, there are four aspects that need to be considered to come up with a stable financial system. The Bank of England (2007) indicates that â€Å"the first aspect is prudential regulation of financial firms, second is systemic stability, third is the lender of last resort role and finally the conduct of business regulation and supervision† (Bank of England,2007,p. 6). The issue in question especially in relation to the Nort hern Rock problem is the institution responsible for prudential supervision, whether it is the bank of Europe, the treasury or FSA. Irrespective of the institution responsible, this type of supervision is mandatory in financial institutions, failure to which results in cases such as what was experienced in Northern Rock (Freixas et al, 2007, p. 12). This conflict on the question of supervision mandate led the government to redefine the roles of the institutions in the financial sector. As a result of this, it was realized that supervision lies with FSA. The crisis in 2007 created the need to develop an official set of organizations and practices for assisting in the recovery of failing banks. This led to the officiating of a memorandum of understanding between the three bodies, that is, treasury, FSA and the Bank of Europe. A report by FSA internal audit division (2008) indicated that there were five basic standards that came with this agreement and these were â€Å"the existence o f a clear division of responsibilities, appropriate accountability arrangements, the avoidance of duplication of responsibilities, exchange of relevant information and mechanisms for crisis management† (2008,p.50). The causes behind the problem of Northern rock are interrelated to the extent that it is difficult to tell exactly what the main cause of this issue was. However, it was realized that prudential supervision of the banking institution was being conducted in a poor way and this is therefore deemed to be the greatest contributor to the whole problem. According to the Bank of England (2007) â€Å"this institution had been a pioneer in risk based supervision; focusing attention where it is most important† (2007, p. 8). This credit was however withdrawn after the Northern Rock crisis which revealed the poor laid supervision strategies. Many financial analysts believe that FSA was in a position to foresee this situation, long before it occurred. From this, it is evi dent that the Northern Rock crisis depicted a high level of failure in the prudential supervision of banking institutions. These failures according to FSA (2008) include â€Å"reliance upon seriously deficient accounting and capital adequacy standards; failure to monitor institutions in a timely, effective, and on-going fashion; failure to intervene appropriately when problems were identified; and promoting the welfare of the regulated institutions and the regulatory agency rather than the insurance fund or the taxpayer† (FSA, 2008, p.43). In fact, hearings in the House of Commons – a committee responsible for establishing the cause of the problems surrounding Northern Rock, indicated that FSA failed to perform effectively. House of Commons alleged that this was by way of â€Å"failing to monitor the institution and allowing Northern Rock to increase its dividends despite its troubled financial position† (2008, p.23). The supervisory evaluations of Northern Rock conducted by FSA did not put much emphasis on liquidity issues. Conclusion From the above discussion of the issues surrounding the Northern Rock problems, it is evident that these problems could have been avoided if all the parties concerned, that is, Northern Rock bank itself, the Bank of Europe and FSA were responsible for the actions that were taken before 2007. Northern Bank was responsible for the crisis in the sense that it did not perform a long term analysis of its actions. In its operations, it failed to consider the possibility of liquidity risks in the financial market. Bank of Europe was responsible in the sense that it did not act promptly as a lender of last resort in providing the credit requested by Northern Bank when it started experiencing the liquidity challenges. References Bank of England 2007, Financial Stability Report. Web. Freixas, X, Giannini, C, Hoggarth, G Soussa, F 2009, ‘Lender of last  Resort: a review of the literature’, Financial Sta bility Review, Vol. 7, pp. 151–167. FSA (2008) ‘The supervision of Northern Rock: a lessons learned review’, Internal Audit, pp. 32 43 FSA Internal Audit Division 2008, ‘The Supervision of Northern Rock’ A Lessons Learned Review, pp. 37 56 Herring, R 2007, ‘Resolution Strategies: Challenges Posed by Systemically Important Banks’, lecture at Regional Seminar on Financial Crisis Management, pp. 5 16 House of Commons 2008, ‘The run on the Rock’, Treasury Committee, Vol. 1, pp. 23 Kane, E 2008, ‘Regulation and supervision: an ethical perspective’, Principles v Rules in Financial Regulation, Vol. 2 no. 5, pp. 48 56 Milne, A Wood, G 2008, ‘Banking Crisis Solutions: Old and New’, Review (Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis), Vol. 1 no. 2, pp. 517–530. Shin, H 2009 ‘Reflections on Northern Rock: The Bank Run that Heralded the Global Financial Crisis’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 101–119 Vesala, J 2006, ‘Which Model for Prudential Supervision in the EU’ Monetary Policy and Financial Market Stability, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp.99-105.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Language, Communication and Culture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Language, Communication and Culture - Essay Example This establishes a unique identity for the assemblage of inhabitants. Language can also be perceived as a platform for communication not only among a group of people, but also among different people with unique cultural backgrounds and ethnicity. A single language can form a link between different communities since it establishes a channel of communication hence enhancing understanding between different groups with unique ideologies. Therefore, language can be perceived as a tool that enhances inter-cultural interactions and co-existence between different communities and races through communication. Although there are different forms of languages across the globe, any language is characterized by certain features. These should be present for a language to conform to acceptable standards. The features that define any language include its grammatical structure, diction, dialect, and others which are unique to various communities. Language is a mental function that is among other functi ons of human beings. Language is associated with all the other mental functions of human beings but in different ways. The other higher mental functions have an impact on language or language has an influence on them. Language and Self-consciousness Consciousness is a feeling in a human being that is initiated through various modes. It can be initiated either internally or externally depending on the actions that lead to its initiation. Although it is difficult to establish a strong relationship between language and self-consciousness, researches have shown that a strong link exists between the two elements. The development of conscience has been shown to result from the response by others to our actions or from personal reactions to our own actions. This development is what defines either internal or external consciousness. Internally, self-consciousness can be perceived as personal reflection. This is the ability of human beings to think of themselves as doing or feeling something , and then initiate personal reflection that will eventually lead to communication. Externally, human beings communicate through actions, thus people will react differently to their actions based on the response given to their actions by others. It is therefore, evident that other people play a vital role in shaping an individual’s conscience. Either internally or externally, self consciousness is stirred by thoughts, which are basic structural units of a language. Thoughts are therefore, the link between language and self-consciousness. According to (Fromkin 111), language forms the key components for the infrastructure of thoughts of human beings. Human thoughts are thus the link that demonstrates the relationship between language and self-consciousness. It is still difficult to establish which element has a greater authority on the other, but it is apparent that a strong relationship between the two exists. Language and Autonomy Independence and freedom in decision making is what defines autonomy of an individual. Research has been conducted by various researchers that try to establish the relationship between autonomy and language. The aspect of language that focuses on this relationship is communication. Decision making is a critical process in any human being that requires a deep understanding which in turn